Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Saraswati: The lost river of India

Missing of a prominent river from the map is not a mystery; it is quite natural as the natural phenomena evolve through environmental changes. 

A part of the river Saraswati till now exists as Ghaggar in Haryana, the rest of it has disappeared in the fringes of the Marusthali or the Thar Desert. 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has made a breakthrough in its research for the existence and probable location of the mythical Saraswati river. The Rajasthan Ground Water Department undertook the task to ‘unearth’ the river with the collaboration of BARC and Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (a wing of ISRO) in 1998. 

If the effort is successful, the people living in the desert belt of Rajasthan will be hopefully supplied more than 3500 year old water derived from palaeo-channels, believed to be the mythical Saraswati. 

Being one of the chief Rigvedic Rivers, as per the Hindu scripts and texts, Saraswati River is also famously known as Ghaggar-Hakra River. The Saraswati River is mentioned between the east of Yamuna and west of Sutlej in the early Rigvedic 'Nadistuti' hymn.
But later in the other Vedic scriptures it is said that the Saraswati River dried up in a desert. This river is a trans-boundary to India as well as to Pakistan. Also this river flows through both the nations together only in the monsoon.
          Several palaeo-channels of river have been identified in the region of Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and adjacent areas, some of which are assigned to the Saraswati. The river is considered to have migrated from east to west. But in the past, most discussions have pointed to the river being in north Gujarat.
Course of Sarasvati river
 Geological record indicates that during the late Pleistocene glaciation, the water of the Himalayas was frozen and that in the place of rivers, there were only glaciers, masses of solid ice. When the climate became warmer, the glaciers began to break up and the frozen water held by them surged forth in great floods, inundating the alluvial plains in front of the mountains. The melting of glaciers has also been referred in Rig Vedic literature, in mythological terms. It was the first interglacial period in Holocene marking the break-up of glaciers and release of the pent-up waters that flowed out in seven mighty river channels referred as the ‘Sapta Sindhu’ in the Rig Veda, traced from east to west. The ‘Sapta Sindhu’ refers to the rivers Saraswati, Satadru (Sutlej), Vipasa (Beas), Asikni (Chenab), Parosni (Ravi), Vitasta (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus). Among these, the Saraswati and the Sindhu were major rivers that flowed from the mountains right up to the sea. The hymns in praise of the Saraswati are probably some of the oldest, composed more than 8000 years ago.

For 2000 years, between 6000 and 4000 B.C., the Saraswati flowed as a great river. R. D. Oldham (1886) was the first geologist who argued logically pointing to the great changes in the drainage pattern of the rivers of Punjab and western Rajasthan converting a once fertile region into a desert. According to geological and glaciological studies, the Saraswati was supposed to have originated in Bandapunch massif (Saraswati-Rupin glacier confluence at Naitwar in western Garhwal).

Map of northern India in the late Vedic period
 The river, which had originated from Kapal tirith in the Himalayas in the west of Kailash, was flowing southward to Mansarovar and then taking a turn towards west. Even today the Saraswati flows from the south of Mana pass which meets river Alaknanda, 3 km away in the south of Mana village. Descending through Adibadri, Bhavanipur and Balchapur in the foothills to the plains, the river took roughly a southwesterly course, passing through the plains of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and finally it is believed to have debounched into the ancient Arabian Sea at the Great Rann of Kutch. In this long journey, the Saraswati is believed to have had three tributaries, Shatadru (Sutlej) originating from Mount Kailas, Drishadvati from Siwalik Hills and the old Yamuna. They flowed together along a channel, presently known as the Ghaggar River, which is known as Hakra River in Rajasthan and Nara in Sindh. Some experts consider these two rivers as a single river whereas others consider the upper course of the Saraswati as Ghaggar and the lower course as the Hakra River, while some others call the Saraswati of the weak and declining stage as the Ghaggar.
Painting of Goddess Saraswati by Raja Ravi Varma
 The river was obliterated within a short span, in the Quarternary period of the Cenozoic era, through a combination of destructive catastrophic events. The decline of the river appears to have commenced between 5000 and 3000 B.C., probably precipitated by a major tectonic event in the Siwalik Hills of Sirmur region. Geological studies reveal that the massive landslides and avalanches were caused by destabilising tectonic events which occurred around the beginning of Pleistocene, about 1.7 million years ago in the entire Siwalik domain, extending from Potwar in Pakistan to Assam in India. Those disturbances, linked to uplift of the Himalayas, continued intermittently. Presumably, one of these events must have severed the glacier connection and cut off the supply of melt water from the glacier to this river; as a result, the Saraswati became non-perennial and dependent on monsoon rains. The diversion of the river water through separation of its tributaries led to the conversion of the river as disconnected lakes and pools; ultimately it was reduced to a dry channel bed. Therefore, the river Saraswati has not disappeared but only dried up in some stretches.

Etymology : Sarasvatī is the devi feminine of an adjective sarasvant- (which occurs in the Rigveda as the name of the keeper of the celestial waters), derived from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sáras-vant-ī (and earlier, PIE *séles-u̯n̥t-ih₂), meaning ‘marshy, full of pools’.
Sanskrit sáras means ‘pool, pond’; the feminine sarasī́ means ‘stagnant pool, swamp’. Like its cognates Welsh hêl, heledd ‘river meadow’ and Greek ἕλος (hélos) ‘swamp’, the Rigvedic term refers mostly to stagnant waters, and Mayrhofer considers unlikely a connection with the root *sar- ‘run, flow’.
Sarasvatī is an exact cognate with Avestan Haraxvatī, perhaps originally referring to Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā (modern Ardwisur Anahid), the Zoroastrian mythological world river, which would point to a common Indo-Iranian myth of a cosmic or mystical Sáras-vant-ī river. In the younger Avesta, Haraxvatī is Arachosia, a region described to be rich in rivers, and its Old Persian cognate Harauvati, which gave its name to the present-day Hārūt River in Afghanistan, may have referred to the entire Helmand drainage basin (the center of Arachosia).
a related reference: 
kumbh mela of allahabad india

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

The Vedic god: Agni

Agni is the most sacred deity of the Vedic period. He occupies a prominent place only next to Indra. Two hundred hymns of the Rig-veda are devoted to him.
Of whom, the auspicious name of which God among the immortals, 
now we should invoke? 
Who will restore us to the great Aditi (nature), 
that I may see (my) father and (my) mother.

Let us invoke the auspicious name of Agni (Fire), 
the first God among the immortals. 
He will restore us again to the great Aditi, 
that I may see (my) father and (my) mother.
There are Vedic gods, whose names must have been framed before that separation of the great Aryan family (the Hindus, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Slave, the Celts, the Teutons: the seven branches of Aryan family ), and which occur therefore, through greatly modified in character, sometimes in Greeks, sometimes in Latin, sometimes in Celtic, Teutonic, and Slavonic dialects. For instances Fire is represented in the Veda as a terrestrial deity: in Sanskrit Agni, in Latin ignis, ingle Scottish, ugnis Lituanian
Gods are different phenomena of nature-fire, wind, sun, earth, moon etc. Natural phenomena personified as gods, were endowed with powers. Why did Vedic seers call the phenomena of nature as gods? The epithet देव (Dev) was originally applicable to sky, sun, moon, dawn, fire, lightning etc. and afterwards extended to earth, storm, rain, and even to the night. Yaska calls every object of worship or praise, a देवता (Devta).
They had not as yet a name for God-certainly not in our sense of the word or even a general name for the gods; but they invented name after name to enable them to grasp and comprehend by some outward and visible tokens powers whose presence they felt in nature, though their true and full essence was to them, as it is to us, invisible and incomprehensible.
It came to mean not only fathers, but invisible, kind, powerful, immortal, heavenly beings, and we can watch in the Veda, better perhaps than anywhere else, the inevitable, yet most touching metamorphosis of ancient thought,- the love of the child for father and mother becoming transfigured into an instinctive belief in the immortality of the soul.*

#pictures showing people participating in 'Fire' worshiping rituals with Vedic mantras in Bhitthikala, Ambikapur, India; organized from 10th January 2013 to 13th January 2013. 

# text reference thankfully shared from: India-What can it teach us by F. Max Muller, Oxford, 1882; The new vedic selection by KNS Telang and BB Chaubey, Prachya Bharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 1965.

* The lost child by Mulk Raj Anand.
 (a reference: http://smohanraj.blogspot.in/2005/12/lost-child.html)

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

High civilizations of former times

Nazca lines analysis indicates that there is parallelism  with the air tracks of the spacecrafts of the extraterrestrials in spirals and zigzag lines - the line up to Egypt - the connection with the history of creation of Egypt - cities of culture on the equator of former times.

Some civilizations of the older times ..
Old civilization of Nazca: a rider on a pterosaurian (pteranodon); stone of stone's museum in Ica
Old civilization of Giza in Egypt, pyramid with sphinx
Old civilization at Sukhothai (today Thailand), Buddha in a temple
Old civilization of Persepolis (today Iran), temple
Old civilization of Pyay, today Myanmar
Old civilization on Easter Island, 638 great statues
But there are missing the old civilizations of the Maya and Mexico. Yes, they should be on the vertical line which is connected with Nasca. 

The lines of Nazca in Peru: In the Peruvian Desert, about 200 miles south of Lima, there lies a plain between the Inca and Nazca (sometimes also spelled Nasca) Valleys. Across this plain, in an area measuring 37 miles long and 1-mile wide, is an assortment of perfectly-straight lines, many running parallel, others intersecting, forming a grand geometric form. In and around the lines there are also trapezoidal zones, strange symbols, and pictures of birds and beasts all etched on a giant scale that can only be appreciated from the sky.
The figures come in two types: biomorphs and geoglyphs. The biomorphs are some 70 animal and plant figures that include a spider, hummingbird, monkey and a 1,000-foot-long pelican. The biomorphs are grouped together in one area on the plain. Some archaeologists believe they were constructed around 200 BC, about 500 years before the geoglyphs.
There are about 900 geoglyphs on the plain. Geoglyphs are geometric forms that include straight lines, triangles, spirals, circles and trapezoids. They are enormous in size. The longest straight line goes nine miles across the plain. 
 The Swiss writer, Erich von Daniken, even suggested they had been built for the convenience of ancient visitors from space to land their ships.
The American explorer Paul Kosok, who made his first visit to Nazca in the 1940s, suggested that the lines were astronomically significant and that the plain acted as a giant observatory. He called them "the largest astronomy book in the world."
 A writer by the name of Jim Woodman believes that the lines and figures could not have been made without somebody in the air to direct the operations. "You simply can't see anything from ground level," states Woodman. "You can't appreciate any of it from anywhere except from above. You can't tell me the Nazca builders would have gone to the monumental efforts they did without ever being able to see it."
Other South American Lines and Figures
The lines at Nazca aren't the only landscape figures South America boasts. About 850 miles south of the plain is the largest human figure in the world laid out upon the side of Solitary Mountain in Chile. The Giant of Atacama stands 393 feet high and is surrounded by lines similar to those at Nazca.
Along the Pacific Coast in the foothills of the Andes Mountains is etched a figure resembling a giant candelabrum. Further south, Sierra Pintada, which means "the painted mountain" in Spanish, is covered with vast pictures including spirals, circles, warriors and a condor. Archaeologists speculate that these figures, clearly visible from the ground, served as guideposts for Inca traders
The Giant of Atacama stands 393 feet high and is surrounded by lines similar to those of Nazca (Licensed through Creative Common courtesy of Eimlio).

Satellite photo with the lines of Nazca with the big cross of lines.
And now there is the question which culture was first.  
This should be described in the 'Vedas' of India !!
More closer study may reveal some clues as 'Vedas' are the book of human mind's observation of the world around....of most ancient period known to humans.

Nazca lines, only with straight lines, from world-mysteries
Some historians say that the big line had been the equator of former times, when North Pole had been on the coast of Pacific Ocean of today's Alaska, and this main line in its elongation comes out directly at the pyramids of Giza.
The Nazca main line with it's elongation to Giza in Egypt, as an equator of former times, according to James Bowles
 Here one can see the situation absolutely clearly from above:

On the equator of former times there is the big majority of centers of "high civilizations" of our forefathers, with it's mythologies and it's pyramids and temples: Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Machu Picchu, Paratoari, Tassili n'Ajjer, Siwa, Giza, Petra, Ur, Persepolis, Mohenjo-Daro, Khajuraho, Pyay, Sukhothai, Preah Vihear, Aneityum Island and Easter Island.
With the equator of today, this line between Nazca and Giza is a sinus-shaped waved line, and on this line are further spots with pyramids and old cultures.

with the equator of today, this line between Nazca and Giza is a sinus-shaped waved line, and on this line are further spots with pyramids and old cultures:
On this line there are most of the holy locations of former times , and Nazca is one of these locations.
On the equator of former times there is the big majority of centers of "high civilizations" of our forefathers, with it's mythologies and it's pyramids and temples: Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Machu Picchu, Paratoari, Tassili n'Ajjer, Siwa, Giza, Petra, Ur, Persepolis, Mohenjo-Daro, Khajuraho, Pyay, Sukhothai, Preah Vihear, Aneityum Island and Easter Island [
Mixed culture between Egypt, Nazca and India and more before 30,000 years - the extraterrestrials were the gods?
Map with the Nazca lines of the poster with Maria Reiche indicating four big spirals for the Nasca plain
Here one can see very well how the position of the arms of the "Astronaut" is done: one arm up, one arm down
A map with many straight lines with a good position of the lines' hill:
Map with the Nazca lines from Boeckel's website with many straight lines and landform configuration. According to this map of the Geographical Institute also the position of the lines' hill is right.
We have the Ica stones with an age of 30,000 years, with drawings of riders on pterosaurians (stone museum at Ica, "Museo de piedras", also aviation museum (museo aeronautica) in Lima. Add to this this age with it's airplanes also is described in the Vedas of India. So we have the proof for this age before 30,000 years with a trias of Egypt, Nazca / Ica and India, but there will be more proofs on many locations yet. 

more reference:
nazca lines of peru

*share courtesy:
#Erich von Daeniken: "The return of the gods".

Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Andean civilizations, Inca Empire and Global Warming

Spanish rule ended or transformed many elements of the Andean civilizations notably influencing religion and architecture.

Today climate change is melting glaciers that allowed the Incan canal system to work, threatening current water supplies throughout the Andes.

Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century.
Inca expansion (1438–1533)

Andean civilization probably began c. 9500 BP. Based in the highlands of Peru, an area now referred to as the punas, the ancestors of the Incas probably began as a nomadic herding people. Geographical conditions resulted in a distinctive physical development characterized by a small stature and stocky build. Men averaged 1.57 m (5'2") and women averaged 1.45 m (4'9"). Because of the high altitudes, they had unique lung developments with almost one third greater capacity than other humans. The Incas had slower heart rates, blood volume of about 2 l (four pints) more than other humans, and double the amount of hemoglobin which transfers oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Archaeologists have found traces of permanent habitation as high as 5,300 m (17,400 ft) above sea level in the temperate zone of the high altiplanos. While the Conquistadors may have been a little taller, the Inca surely had the advantage of coping with the extraordinary altitude. It seems that civilizations in this area before the Inca have left no written record, and therefore the Inca seem to appear from nowhere, but the Inca were a product of the past. They borrowed architecture, ceramics, and their empire-state government from previous cultures.
In the Lake Titikaka region, Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately 500 years.
Sacsayhuamán, the Inca stronghold of Cusco
 The Spanish installed Atahualpa's brother Manco Inca Yupanqui in power; for some time Manco cooperated with the Spanish, while the Spanish fought to put down resistance in the north. Meanwhile an associate of Pizarro's, Diego de Almagro, attempted to claim Cusco for himself. Manco tried to use this intra-Spanish feud to his advantage, recapturing Cusco in 1536, but the Spanish retook the city afterwards. Manco Inca then retreated to the mountains of Vilcabamba, Peru, where he and his successors ruled for another 36 years, sometimes raiding the Spanish or inciting revolts against them. In 1572 the last Inca stronghold was conquered, and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, Manco's son, was captured and executed. This ended resistance to the Spanish conquest under the political authority of the Inca state.
A view of Machu Picchu
 After the fall of the Inca Empire many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed, including their sophisticated farming system, known as the vertical archipelago model of agriculture. Spanish colonial officials used the Inca mita corvée labor system for colonial aims, sometimes brutally. One member of each family was forced to work in the gold and silver mines, the foremost of which was the titanic silver mine at Potosí. When a family member died, which would usually happen within a year or two, the family would be required to send a replacement.
Banner of the Incas.
The effects of smallpox on the Inca empire were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia, smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within a few years smallpox claimed between 60% and 94% of the Inca population, with other waves of European disease weakening them further. Smallpox was only the first epidemic. Typhus (probably) in 1546, influenza and smallpox together in 1558, smallpox again in 1589, diphtheria in 1614, measles in 1618 – all ravaged the remains of Inca culture.
Modern flag of the city of Cuzco.

In modern times the rainbow flag has been associated with the Tawantinsuyu and is displayed as a symbol of Inca heritage in Peru and Bolivia. The city of Cusco flies the Rainbow Flag. Even the Peruvian president Alejandro Toledo (2001–2006) flew the Rainbow Flag in Lima's presidential palace.
According to the Peruvian newspaper El Comercio, the flag only dates to the first decades of the 20th century. But in his 1847 book A History of the Conquest of Peru, "William H. Prescott ... says that in the Inca army each company had its particular banner, and that the imperial standard, high above all, displayed the glittering device of the rainbow, the armorial ensign of the Incas." A 1917 world flags book says the Incan "heir-apparent ... was entitled to display the royal standard of the rainbow in his military campaigns."

Incan empire aided by global warming:The warmer temperatures allowed the Inca to irrigate agricultural terraces fed by canals bringing glacial melt-water to the fields. Additionally, the Inca planted trees on the hillsides to prevent erosion and increase soil fertility.

This all led to a surplus of food (maize and potatoes primarily), which in turn enabled the Inca to expand their empire, building an extensive road network and the grand structures by which they are remembered today.
Also, the warming which allowed the Inca to thrive was of a different scale entirely than that which is predicted and occurring today. It followed an extended period of drought -- which likely brought down the previous Wari empire -- and ultimately made the region more habitable.

Today climate change is melting glaciers that allowed the Incan canal system to work, threatening current water supplies throughout the Andes. Throughout most of the world climate change will move the climate towards being less hospitable not more.
*Note: all pictures thankfully shared from various sites on internet..

Tuesday, January 1, 2013

Human male: A degenerative sex

Chromosomes are long, stringy aggregates of genes that carry heredity information. They are composed of DNA and proteins and are located within the nucleus of our cells. Chromosomes determine everything from hair color and eye color to sex. Whether you are a male or female depends on the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.

Diagram (courtesy: wikipedia.org) of a replicated and condensed metaphase eukaryotic chromosome. (1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere – the point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm. (4) Long arm

 Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the Y chromosome.

Sex chromosome evolution: Sex chromosomes are derived from ordinary autosomes. The X chromosome is thought to maintain most of its ancestral genes over evolutionary time, whereas its Y counterpart degenerates, owing to its lack of recombination. Genomic analyses of young sex chromosome pairs support this view and have shed light on the evolutionary processes underlying loss of gene function on the Y. Studies of ancestral sex chromosomes, however, have also revealed that the process of sex chromosome evolution can be more dynamic than traditionally appreciated. In particular, ancient Y-chromosomes are characterized not only by a loss of genes relative to the X but also by recurrent gains of individual genes or genomic regions, and they often accumulate genes beneficial to males. Furthermore, X chromosomes are not passive players in this evolutionary process but respond both to their sex-biased transmission and to Y-chromosome degeneration, through feminization and the evolution of dosage compensation.

The Y chromosome is one of the 2 sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 50 million base pairs.

The Y chromosome is the shortest chromosome in humans, and most of the Y chromosome is believed to be made of junk DNA. In the 1960s, Ohno proposed that the human Y chromosome is a profoundly degenerated X chromosome with very few genes on it encoding male-specific features and some began to speculate that the continued degradation of the Y chromosome might result in the extinction of the human male. 

The human X and Y chromosomes can use recombination to renew only their pseudoautosomal regions.

In order to address this question, it is helpful to know the origin of the Y chromosome. Surprisingly, the most primitive Y chromosome found so far was not found in any animal, but in the papaya (Carica papaya, 2n=18). Liu et al. (2004) found that male and hermaphrodite papayas contain an allele that is not found in female papayas. Severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration are observed in the regions around that allele. Although no heteromorphic chromosomes in papayas were found to be analogous to the X and Y chromosomes in humans, the newly discovered gene shares many characteristics with male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY).

Shrinking theory: The human Y chromosome has lost 1,393 of its 1,438 original genes over the course of its existence. With a rate of genetic loss of 4.6 genes per million years, the Y chromosome may potentially lose complete function within the next 10 million years. Comparative genomic analysis, however, reveals that many mammalian species are experiencing a similar loss of function in their heterozygous sex chromosome. Degeneration may simply be the fate of all nonrecombining sex chromosomes due to three common evolutionary forces: high mutation rate, inefficient selection and genetic drift.

pic courtesy: Daniel Berehulak/nytimes.com, December 23, 2012. New Delhi, India.

The degeneration of man as a species is already apparent.We now have Down's, muscular dystrophy, early heart failure, fiends that rape and murder small children, etc. Over 7,000 genetic faults are catalogued. If allowed to become more wide-spread, the genetic diseases now in our gene pool could end civilization. No significant gene shift is required, only a continued multiplication of the genetic faults we already have.(pic: A protester at a demonstration over the Indian government’s handling of rape cases braced herself against the spray of a water cannon fired by the police.)

Future evolution: In the terminal stages of the degeneration of the Y chromosome, other chromosomes increasingly take over genes and functions formerly associated with it. Finally, the Y chromosome disappears entirely, and a new sex-determining system arises. Several species of rodent in the sister families Muridae and Cricetidae have reached these stages.

Sex in the future: In modern society, where male and female are considered equal and interchangeable, the female may, and is encouraged to do so, perform all of the male tasks along with her own. She may not only bear and raise the children but provide the livelihood as well. The male, deprived of his contribution to the family and his particular contribution to society, is no longer necessary. Modern feminists envision eliminating the male completely through cloning. For some strange reason, the modern male has accepted these terms and is now little more than a stud, servicing any needy heterosexual female who happens along, or the lesbian who wishes to become pregnant. He may now act as the juvenile male, chasing all comers, all of his life, without cultural censure.
Modern cultural style dictates that the female become more masculine, complete with coarse and suggestive language and the male more feminine, complete with jewelry, carefully disarranged hair and a propensity to weep openly at the slightest provocation A result of this new independence (almost open war) between the sexes and the idea that sex is interchangeable, is a decided increase in homosexual activity. The local motel, which at one time was the noontime hotbed for sinning heterosexuals, now caters all week to same sex couples.
From the new cultural viewpoint, the male will become useless baggage. With the female propensity for a feminist society, one which must constantly guard against male domination, and with the handy tool of abortion for sex selection, the male will be tolerated only in limited numbers. Through female cloning the male may be eliminated entirely.
On the other hand, the fetus, during gestation in the womb, is susceptible to widespread damage. Modern females are careless about their living style, casually aborting a fetus at will, imbibing in alcohol, tobacco and drugs and otherwise living a stressful life style. All of this effects the quality of the new human. As an alternative to a female culture, the male could develope artificial wombs that would provide near perfect environments for the fetus. Then by cloning the male, the female could be eliminated.
Perhaps the end goal is to abandon sexual reproduction altogether. The human then becomes a self-impregnating hermaphrodite. Each child would be a clone of the parent. Evolution would have then gone full circle. The genetic and social advantages are many. The species can then become truly an intellectual species. Concerts could again become events for the enjoyment of music instead of tools for seduction. Cultures would be greatly simplified. 

#image share courtesy: ubc.ca, onelife.com, bbc.co.uk, wikipedia.org

Happy chemicals of human body

Happiness is a very illusive term in human case as affecting variable are many.  But for sure, happy people are more successful in multiple...